Iron Horse Blog
Hey June 🎵,
l am very proud to be flying to London for the prestigious Decanter Magazine "Exploration of International Sparkling Wines" - initially a PR and marketing dream, now tragically a point of pride in defiance of terror.
My heart goes out to the families and loved ones of the victims from Saturday's attacks. As the Brits say: Keep calm and carry on.
You can click here to see the catalog. Iron Horse and Schramsberg are the two American producers.
By my way of thinking, once in London, I am half way to Africa. So, I am going to see our cousins, the mountain gorillas in Uganda. It is thrilling to get a notification from the airline that says: "Your flight to Entebbe is approaching ..."
I am told it will be a very emotional experience - primate to primate. Gorillas are, after all, family. We will be tracking them on foot from a base camp in Bwindi Impenetrable Forest. There are just 600 left in the wild.
Also very exciting, our Estate Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and 2013 Ocean Reserve Blanc de Blancs are being featured at National Geographic's Explorers Symposium in Washington DC.
Here at home, we've had bloom ... and now grapes, which over the course of summer will size up and become filled with delicious flavors.
photo: LG Sterling
We are bottling the 2016 Sparklings to be laid down for the next three, four and in the case of Joy! at least 12 years en tirage. In the meantime, we are releasing our first wine from vintage 2016 - our very delicious 2016 UnOaked Chardonnay.
photo: Shana Bull
The timing couldn't be better as we have been sold out of the prior vintage for months.
We have some fun events coming up:
World Oceans Day
They say the ocean deserves its own day; we at Iron Horse like to add that the ocean deserves its own bubbly! Please join us in a toast with our 2013 Ocean Reserve Blanc de Blancs. We are offering a complimentary tasting for everyone who comes to the Tasting Room wearing blue on June 8. Remember, we are "by appointment" for tours and tastings.
Ocean Reserve is a special limited production Sparkling Wine created in partnership with National Geographic. $4/bottle goes to help restore the ocean's health and abundance.
Summer of Love Garden Party, exclusively for Wine Club Members
Please join us Sunday August 6 for our annual Wine Club garden party at the home of Iron Horse co-founders Audrey & Barry Sterling. This year we are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Summer of Love, so be sure to wear flowers in your hair. 11a to 1p. Limited to 60 guests. Club Members price $50/person.
Share the love (and a glass or two of 2013 Wedding Cuvee) with Audrey & Barry as they celebrate their 65th wedding anniversary. Click here for more details.
A very special toast! And all best wishes,
It has been a very buzzy month.
Photo LG Sterling
As I’m sure you’ve heard, the California drought is now officially over for most of the state. Certainly in our part of the state. Look at how green it is:
Photo Eileen Vasko
We have had a biblical amount of rain. And while I thank you very much for your prayers, you can stop now. We've had enough. (Goes to show, we farmers are never happy. First its drought and then we’re complaining about deluge.)`
The recovery is not yet 100%. There are parts of the state that are still in drought mode, most notably at the heart of California agriculture - Fresno, Kings County, Tulare and Tuolumne, where diminished groundwater levels still require a need for emergency drinking water.
Water allocations went back to 100% for agriculture, but for many farmers that news came too late. Just a month ago, they were told to expect 65% … and so they planted accordingly. Unfortunately, with farming, it’s not just turning on or off the tap.
Hopefully a long, slow, steady snow melt will help replenish the acquifers and while mandatory conservation measures have been lifted, hopefully we Californians will not go back to our wanton ways.
For now, I am digging the sunshine, as are the vines, which couldn't look more beautiful ... and the roses, which are just starting to pop along the fence as your drive onto the property. These beauties are climbing five stories high in the tree in front of my house.
We had a very rewarding experience when the Dept. of Fish and Wildlife released 84,000 baby cohos from our bridge into Green Valley Creek, a project Laurence has been working on since 2004. "Our" creek is deemed critically important for the salmon and it is great that Laurence and my mother just happened to be driving by so they got to see the release ... my mother from the car and Laurence up close with his camera.
Photo LG Sterling
Clearly a proud moment. By now, hopefully they are three times the size and have made it to the ocean to return in two years.
For us, there is no better way to toast Mother Nature than with the delicious wines of Green Valley. Kudos to our friends and neighbors at DeLoach, Dutton Goldfield, Freeman Vineyard and Winery, Hartford Family Winery, Lynmar, Marimar Estate and the Rubin Family of Wines for being the highlight of our Earth Day event.
I also want to thank the extended IH family for putting it together, led by our Director of Hospitality, the incomparable Dixie Buhlke.
I was honored to introduce our keynote speaker California Secretary of Agriculture Karen Ross, whose portfolio includes: food, fiber, dairy, forestry, animal welfare, pollinators, water, food safety, hunger, food waste, pests, avian flu, labor issues, immigration issues, border issues, habitat protection, trade, and climate change and contrary to common wisdom, how agriculture is part of the solution to climate change. This to me is so key. Most people think of farming as the problem. But even the almond growers, last year's whipping child, are working on innovatative, voluntary, sustainability practices.
Photo Supervisor James Gore
And, how fun to introduce the Impossible Burger – a first for almost everyone there. It certainly met the cool factor, though it was a bit ironic that that we were enjoying them in an old, 1920s cattle corral. If plant based burgers are the future, then the future promises to be delicious! Especially with a glass of Green Valley Pinot Noir.
Photo Shana Ray
We staged a one day, one time only exhibit of National Geographic food photography from around the word. This was a truncated version of a traveling exhibit on The Future of Food.
One of the most poignant images showed a New Jersey family of four in their home surrounded by a year’s worth of uneaten food.
Photo Robert Clark, courtesy National Geographic
Sadly, 40 percent of the food in the U.S. is wasted – enough to feed 25 million people, at a cost of $218 billion a year. 21 percent of our water is spent growing, processing, transporting, and disposing of food that is never eaten.
One brilliant solution is to embrace misfit fruits and vegetable, so called “ugly” produce that get left in the field, or rejected at the store level for any imperfections. We had Imperfect Produce on hand serving fresh, spring “rejects” as crudites.
All edible leftovers from our event were distributed to those in need by the food sharing app Copia, whose 27 year old founder and CEO Komal Ahmad gave an inspiring talk about starting her organization while she was in school as a way to get perfectly fine food that was going to waste at the UC Berkeley dining hall into the hands of the homeless in People’s Park. Calling hunger "America's dumbest problem", she is on track to feed 1 million people.
The music was great - Ronstadt Generations, led by Petie Ronstadt – Linda Ronstadt’s nephew, representing five generations of musicians.
The beneficiary this year was the nonprofit organization Sustainable Conservation, based in San Francisco, whose mission is uniting farmers, environmentalists, regulators, scientists to work together to help solve California’s toughest environmental challenges.
Chef Traci des Jardins, Karen Ross, Stacey Sullivan of Sustainable Conservation, Joy Sterling. Photo Sarah Stierch.
For a very good newspaper account, click here.
For me, the big take aways were:
- Waste not
- Wield power as businesses and consumers to guide government
- Every day is Earth Day
I am very proud of this interview on the California Grown website for their "Meet a Farmer" series, posted last week. I hope you will read and enjoy it. It is all about who we are.
MARCH 10, 2017
Meet a Farmer: Joy Sterling of Iron Horse Vineyards
Meet Joy Sterling, CEO of Iron Horse Vineyards in Sebastopol, CA. As a second-generation farmer, she's proud of the wine her family's vineyard produces. Learn more about her, why she says agriculture is in her DNA and how wine has become her passport in life!
CA GROWN: Tell me about the history of the company and what your role is.
Joy: My parents bought Iron Horse Vineyards 41 years ago in 1976 and we are a completely estate-bottled winery, so we use our own grapes exclusively. We make Sparkling Wine, which is what we're best known for, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
CA GROWN: What does a typical day look like for you?
Joy: No two days are alike. Right now from a farming standpoint, we are just getting bud break in the vineyards, so that's a very exciting time even though it's a little early for us. So we're rushing to get the pruning done as quickly as we possibly can and then we'll be on alert because we're subject to frost as late as June 1.
We have some new releases that I'm excited about for spring. On March 20, we're going to release a new limited production Sparkling Wine called Spring Rose.
I'm also working on a major event called Celebrate Earth Day in Green Valley, which will take place on Sunday, April 23. The keynote speaker is California Agriculture Secretary Karen Ross. The theme of the day is the Future of Food. There will be eight wineries from Green Valley, which is our special growing area, pouring delicious Pinot Noirs and Chardonnays. We've enlisted a Silicon Valley start up called Copia, a phone app that restaurants and events can use to get volunteers to come and pick up any excess and leftover food and get that to people in need instantly.
CA GROWN: What are you most proud of that your winery has done or participated in?
Joy: There are so many things, but what started it was the historic Reagan-Gorbachev Summit Meetings in 1985 that ended the Cold War. As you can imagine, to this day, my family takes complete credit for ending the Cold War. It's the pillar of our prestige and incredible point of pride for us.
Another was New Year's Eve 1999. The White House ushered in the new millennium with Iron Horse wines. They've been served at Supreme Court dinners, to the Queen of England and the President of China. And we make a special cuvee in partnership with National Geographic, which the State Department has served on a number of occasions called Ocean Reserve. We give $4 a bottle to National Geographic's ocean initiative to help established marine protected areas and support sustainable fishing around the globe.
CA GROWN: What are some ways your company gives back to the community?
Joy: In addition to the National Geographic partnership and the Earth Day event, we contribute to charitable organizations and I serve on the State Food and Agricultural Board, appointed by Jerry Brown.
CA GROWN: What drew you into the farming profession?
Joy: I am very lucky that it's a family business. Before I joined the winery, I was a journalist for 10 years. When I had my annual review with my immediate superior at the time, he told me I was right on track to be just like him and I went home and cried. The last thing on earth I wanted to be was like him and so there I was with a decision to make. I came home and started off doing sales and marketing in 1985 and I became CEO in 2006.
I pinch myself every single day and I don't take any of this for granted. Our winery is so incredibly beautiful and I am absolutely 100% certain that the deliciousness of our wine is a result of the grapes knowing they're growing in such a beautiful place.
I also believe that as Californians, it's part of our DNA to have a love of the land and an inclination to agriculture.
CA GROWN: What are your hobbies or pastimes when you're not farming?
Joy: I'm a writer. I've written four books. I love to be outdoors. I love to hike and walk. And I'm a big traveler and adventurer. In June, I'm going to Uganda to see the mountain gorillas and I'm beyond excited about that. First I'm going to London where Decanter Magazine, which is a very prestigious British wine publication, is hosting an international Sparkling Wines of the world event. Once I'm in London, I'm halfway to Africa and I really wanted to see the gorillas, so I'm going. It's going to be a fantastic trip and I'm really looking forward to it.
CA GROWN: What advice would you give to someone who wants to become a farmer?
Joy: First of all, I encourage people to become farmers. It may not be the most fashionable thing people think about, but it is so incredibly gratifying. In the wine world, there are so many different ways to get involved, but the most important thing you can do is to just get an entry level position and learn from it. There are some wonderful learning institutions you can go to and learn about the industry and the science. Or you can gain hands-on experience too because nothing beats getting your hands dirty. That's agriculture. And the most important element in fine wine grape growing is walking the vineyards so you can be in touch with what's going on.
The thing about fine wine grape growing is that there is so much opportunity. You've got geology, you've got chemistry, you have soil science, plant science ... so many different facets.
I read a quote the other day that I really loved and it said "Someone who works with his hands is a laborer. Someone who works with his hands and his mind is a craftsman. Someone who works with his hands, his mind and his heart is an artist." There's no doubt in mind that the entire Iron Horse family is made up of artists because they put their hearts into grape growing and wine making every day.
CA GROWN: What is something that's unique about your business or makes it stand out?
Joy: I think the fact that we make sparkling wine makes us special because there are very few sparkling wine producers in California. The barriers for entry are very high because when you're making sparkling wine, you age them so long and as anybody in business will tell you, holding onto inventory is the most expensive thing you can do.
Another thing that makes us stand out is being estate-bottled and strictly using our own grapes. It's the foundation of our belief system that our vineyard is capable of producing unique, distinctive, top-quality flavors and the only thing that's proprietary to us are the grapes. That really leads our marketing concept - we make those distinctive, delicious wines so that when you wake up at 3 a.m. with an undeniable thirst for Iron Horse wines, absolutely nothing else will do.
Iron Horse is not only my family's business, but it's our home. We have three generations living on the property ranging in ages from 22 to 87. So we have a kind of "Waltons" type of thing going on, which is fantastic. We are a model of an agricultural layout in the sense that the property is crisscrossed by the natural, riparian corridors. The property is beautifully broken up and it's not wall to wall vineyard.
CA GROWN: What has contributed to your past success and what are you doing to ensure continued success going forward?
Joy: To ensure our continued success, we aren't interested in consistency at all. We're interested in doing better and better and better. At every meeting, we're talking about what we can do to take the wines to the next level. Being estate-bottled means that our growth is not in quantity, but in quality. So we have a very specific vision of making wines that speak to our home place.
CA GROWN: What's the most rewarding part of your job?
Joy: The people I meet. First of all, people who like wine are the most gracious, generous, hospitable, fun-loving, sharing type of people. I think of wine as my passport, I can go anywhere and talk to anybody and when I say I'm in the wine world, they just can't wait to talk about wine.
Everybody loves to talk about wine and part of the beauty of that is that everybody is right when it comes to wine, there is no right or wrong. We all taste differently and it's like lying on your back in the grass and looking at the clouds. You might see a horse and I might see a ship and we're both right. So it has an amazing ability to bring people together, which is why wine has historically been a diplomatic drink. It's common ground.
CA GROWN: As a California farmer, we know that you have a long list of activities you undertake on your farm to care for the land and its resources. What are one or two ways that you're most proud of or you feel are innovative ways you care for your land?
Joy: When my parents bought Iron Horse in 1976, the first thing they did was build a reservoir. As Californians, they understood that they had to have water storage. Then in 1990, my brother brilliantly entered into an agreement with the neighboring town of Forestville to recharge our reservoir with tertiary-treated water. So we're using recycled water for all of our frost protection, for the vegetable gardens, etc. Irrigation isn't a giant thing for us, but frost protection uses a huge amount of water, so we're ahead of the curve on water use.
Also, our property is bisected by Green Valley Creek which is a tributary to the Russian River and we are working with local engineers and Fish and Wildlife to restore the creek and make it better for the salmon.
I am very excited to say hello to the sun after a February that swiftly washed away in the storms. According to my brother’s stats, Iron Horse has received 41 inches of rain since January 1 – up 250% from “normal”. (Normal being the ten year average.)
What that means for the grapes is anyone’s guess. There are so many variables ahead. But I think it is safe to assume this will be an expensive vintage. We are going to need to catch up on the pruning.
And we can expect a lot of leaf growth, which we will pull off by hand, directing the vine’s energy to the grapes instead of “wasting” it on an excess of leaves.
On the plus side,
- The camellias have never been more gorgeous. The ones at my parents’ house are massive and covered in flowers so perfect they don’t even look real.
- We do not have any vines standing in water thanks to the gentle, rolling, interlocking knolls on the estate, which naturally shed water.
- Our highly coveted sandy soil type, called Gold Ridge soil, provides excellent drainage.
- And the cover crop which my brother brilliantly seeded between the vine rows back in November, is now lush and bright, spring green, doing its job, preventing erosion.
Looking ahead, we hope to be very lucky and have cold temps staving off bud break for three weeks, no big rain storms thereafter and a later snow melt in the Sierras than the past few years, ideally starting in April and slowly running through the summer as critical for our levees and reservoirs.
We have two new releases – the 2003 vintage of Joy Blanc de Blancs on March 17 and a new limited production 2013 Spring Rose, perfect for toasting the vernal equinox, which we are including in the March Wine Club shipment. Only 400 cases produced.
I am very excited about how our Earth Day event is evolving and proud to announce our first sponsors to come forward: The Turner Foundation, Breakthru Beverage, Southern Glazer’s Wine & Spirits, Riedel Crystal and California Caviar Company.
The theme this year is the Future of Food. Food connects us, nourishes us, and defines us. As part of the day, National Geographic is mounting a truncated version of an exhibit which looks at how we will grow and eat in the future to meet the needs of an expanding population. Food does more than just keep us alive. It plays a central role in connecting us to the land, to our heritage, and to each other.
Please click here to order tickets.
Wishing you all blue skies ahead.
Greetings from thoroughly drenched Green Valley. We have received 22 inches of rain since January 1. Green Valley Creek which bisects the vineyard is a tributary of the Russian River and that whole swath of the estate is in a 100 year floodplain.
Photo: LG Sterling
For several days you couldn't see the tops of the posts on the bridge. We call that doing our part to replenish the aquifers.
Of course we need the rain. A year ago, 43 percent of the state was gripped by "exceptional drought". Now that figure is two percent. (Source: US Drought Monitor) And after 40 years here at Iron Horse we are seasoned at riding out a wet winter.
We are very lucky that our vineyards are hillside and our sandy soils drain easily. The rainbows have been inspiring. But we are going to have to hustle to get the pruning done before bud break.
Photo: LG Sterling
January is the traditional time to report on the state of the winery and I am proud to convey that the state of the winery is strong - a soggy mess after what has seemed like boundless rain from the start, but gamely moving forward.
There are some things about 2016 I would be very happy to repeat. Number #1, our many successes as a vineyard, winery, business and family. I am privileged to get to work with an exceptional team. And, last year, in some areas, we surprised ourselves.
I smile when I think about how smoothly we transitioned to tastings by appointment on the weekends. The response surpassed all expectations. We had the pleasure of welcoming 33,000 guests here last year and the San Francisco Chronicle named us one of the top 50 Tastings Rooms in Napa & Sonoma.
Now we ask that you please make reservations on weekdays too. It truly elevates the experience. Please look at the reservation program to see how easy it is.
Some of my fondest memories of 2016 involve toasting with "Cuvee 50" for Super Bowl 50 in San Francisco, which now feels so far back in time, and "Spirit of 76" celebrating the 40th Anniversary of when my parents acquired Iron Horse in 1976.
Both were one time only, limited production bubblies, never to be replicated.
2016 was in no way an easy vintage. The crop was low and there was so much uneven ripening that in many blocks we picked just half the crop - strictly the mature fruit, and then went back two three days later to pick the rest once it too had fully ripened. The resulting wines have set a new bar for us and the year will always stand out as our 40th harvest at Iron Horse.
From the beginning the goal has been to strive for the highest quality, so it is especially gratifying to see Iron Horse in the current issue of Wine Enthusiast at the same table with the very best in the world.
Looking forward, the next release of Joy! is Friday March 17, St. Patrick's Day. It's bound to be a lucky day. This will be our third time hosting a Joy! Release Tasting. So far they have been very successful. There is no doubt that the first one, last March got the most excitement because we had been out of Joy! (Joy!less) for three years. Still, the November release did extremely well and received a near perfect 98 point rating. The November Joy! was 50% Pinot and 50% Chardonnay. I say "was" because as of last night we had 18 magnums left. The upcoming Joy! is the same vintage - 2003, but Blanc de Blancs and aged six months longer. Please make reservations here.
I am also very excited about how our Earth Day event is evolving.
The theme is the future of food.
The participating wineries are DeLoach Vineyards, Dutton-Goldfield Winery, Freeman Vineyard and Winery, Hartford Family Winery, Iron Horse Vineyards, Lynmar Estate, Marimar Estate, Rubin Family of Wines.
The keynote speaker is California Secretary of Agriculture Karen Ross.
Acclaimed San Francisco Chef Traci Des Jardins is on board to showcase the "Impossible Burger", made entirely from plants, served it at the Paris Climate Change Conference as tartare.
Ronstadt Generations will perform live, honoring the family's musical traditions with the Southwestern and Mexican songs of their heritage blended with original material. Special guest: Linda Ronstadt.
Imperfect Produce is providing a beautiful display of "ugly" produce as crudités.
We have enlisted Copia, a mobile app that helps businesses and events connect excess edible food to feed communities in need, instantly.
I hope you will be able to join in. Net proceeds will benefit Sustainable Conservation, a non-profit organization uniting people to solve California's toughest environmental challenges, chosen by Secretary Ross to be the beneficiary.
Finally, Gung Hay Fat Choy. Saturday is Chinese New Year. And naturally we are pouring our Year of the Rooster Cuvee in the Tasting Room.
Please come join us in a toast.
Thanksgiving dinner is traditionally fraught and seems especially so this year coming on the heels of an historically bitter election. A story in The New York Times last Wednesday suggests the all out war between the presidential candidates may also lead to war at the family table. I pray this doesn’t happen to you. But hosts and guests alike can stave off holiday strife by heeding some very easy to follow advice: make sure there’s plenty of really delicious wine on the table, especially wines you yourself will love to drink. Thanksgiving is all about indulgence and sharing. So, why not?
Wine can be the great equalizer at the Thanksgiving table, bringing us together at a pivotal moment in American history. I encourage you to leverage this unique, conciliatory quality of wine to navigate potential landmines at your holiday celebrations.
Wine has a long and storied history of providing common ground. It’s a convener. It draws everyone in. To shore up this thesis, I solicited supporting evidence from our vineyard based team and here’s what they shared:
Wine is a perfectly safe topic.
It’s fun! It does contain alcohol.
It’s empirically proven that you always make friends when you bring the wine.
And, if you enjoy wine, you probably will probably enjoy talking about it … especially as a respite from talking politics.
A delicious wine can bridge all divides.
We traditionally start our holiday meal with a toast, which automatically brings in everyone at the table with the clinking of glasses. After a couple of sips, the social lubricant does its magic. Everyone starts to relax and communicate. The din in the room starts to rise. Laughter follows.
Each of us experiences wine in a different way. It is one of the few things where everyone is right. You taste raspberries in a Pinot … and I taste smoke and spice. It’s like sitting on the bench at the winery and looking out at the clouds. I see a bear and you see a ship in full sail. We’re both right. What’s exciting is the sharing. It’s a way to get to know someone.
Wine has intersected with politics dating back to the time of pharaohs and continues today as part of a strategy of “soft power” being deployed at the White House and State Department where the menu, the wines, the table setting are all carefully considered (see NY Times article here).
I believe one reason Iron Horse was chosen for the Reagan-Gorbachev Summit Meetings in 1985 is because of our proximity to the Russian River and that we pertain to the town of Sebastopol. Our geographic roots supplied an instant connection and something mutually agreeable to talk about. At the time, we were told that every member of cabinet signed off on the selection.
As we prepare for a memorable Thanksgiving, I want to leave you with some unifying words that you might be able to carry into a potentially challenging holiday season. Rudyard Kipling said, “Words, of course, are the most powerful drug used by mankind.” Use them wisely, and kindly. With a glass of wine ever in hand.
“Good company, good wine, good welcome, can make good people.” – William Shakespeare
“Strange to see how a good dinner and feasting reconciles everybody." - Samuel Pepys,17th Century England
“An iconic American Thanksgiving meal prepared by an iconic American chef (Mom, Dad, Grandma) calls for iconic American wines … “ Dave McIntyre, Washington Post
Historic Thanksgiving Day Facts:
1621: The year of the first Thanksgiving, a three-day feast in Plymouth.
The holiday was originally dedicated to giving thanks for a bountiful autumn harvest.
The Pilgrims probably drank beer or even more likely hard cider.
Thanksgiving became an annual affair only in the late 1660s.
The first truly national Thanksgiving holiday was observed in 1863. President Abraham Lincoln established the annual Thanksgiving date in a bid to promote unity between the Northern and Southern states.
Every president since Harry Truman has pardoned a turkey for Thanksgiving.
Finally, for the giving in Thanksgiving, please consider our 2012 Ocean Reserve. $4 per bottle goes to National Geographic’s ocean initiative, helping establish marine protected areas and support sustainable fishing around the globe.
Sending my very best wishes to you and yours for a wonderful, peaceable Thanksgiving filled with love, laughter and delicious wine.
October, besides being just a gorgeous month at home, also happens to be a prime selling month. This takes me out into the market to present Iron Horse wines ahead of the holidays. It’s an annual ritual I cherish as I get to personally call on some of the country’s leading sommeliers and wine buyers and hear first hand what they’re thinking. This year, the word on everyone’s lips seems to be “dosage.” As in, “What is your dosage”?
So that got me to thinking, what’s driving the interest in dosage and, as VinePair posited, “Is Dosage a Dirty Word?”
2015 Cuvee's Line-Up
The answer is obviously yes. Globally speaking, the trend in sparkling wines is skewing drier and drier. But at Iron Horse, we are taking this highly rarified aspect of sparkling wine making to a whole new level having actually very little to do with sugar.
Dosage (aka liqueur d’expedition or lex) is the finishing touch to a bottle of bubbles – a simple syrup of wine and sugar, the final step in méthode champenoise, the last addition before inserting the cork.
Dosage represents about 1% of the contents of a 750ml bottle and at its most basic, determines the degree of dryness to sweetness of the wine.
The spectrum runs from:
no dosage, which goes by various names: brut zero, brut nature, non dosé, bone dry
extra brut (defined as under .5% residual sugar)
brut level dry (.5% to 1.5% rs) the most classic and pervasive
sec, which ironically means dry in French, but denotes medium sweet, sometimes confusingly called extra dry, but is to my taste downright saccharine. The discontinued Moet White Star was a particularly popular Extra Dry style, at one time the most popular in the United States.
doux, 5% sugar.
Over the last two centuries, there has been a tendency to drink champagne with less and less added sugar. In the 19th century, champagne was drunk very heavily sweetened, with residual sugar levels varying between 5 and 10% or even more.
Today, there very few “doux” and “demi-sec” champagnes. And as a general trend in my observation even the bruts are becoming drier in recent years. Why?
For insight we contacted Rajat Parr, Partner/Proprietor Domaine de la Cote. I first met Raj as the wine director for Michael Mina’s Wine Program and we first had the pleasure of working with him on crafting the inaugural Michael Mina Cuvee 20 years ago and counting.
Raj told us, “Champagnes in the 20s, 30s, 40s up until the 80s were slightly off dry. Now in the last 10 years, Champagne has gone drier and drier, it’s a trend of the world. Sweeter drinks are now seen as simple or not as complex. Non-dosage sparkling wines are a la mode. “
“My pallet is all about fresh and higher acid wines. For Michael Mina, I wanted dry because I knew Michael Mina’s cuisine. I was looking to make wine that was more accessible with the food. I was thinking about the guests at the restaurant and trying to profile their preferences.”
To achieve this, we brought Raj in-house to participate in the process we use in creating dosage. It starts with David assembling a series of dosage trials.
Signature David Munksgard Dosage Trial -- the scientist assessing Wedding Cuvee
The dosage trials involve sitting in front of eight or so flutes. Each is filled with the same base wine, same vintage, everything being equal, except for the dosage. You may think we are talking about how many angels can dance on the head of a pin, but the stylistic differences are jaw dropping.
Says Raj, “Being involved in the blind tasting with David to taste so many different combinations and permutations of dosage, was an amazing experience … and then we celebrated at lunch with the family.“
So, by our “disruptive” thinking, more important than the amount of sugar (or lack there of) is the composition of the dosage.
As David puts it “A lot of what we do has nothing to do with the addition of sugar. I’m actually adding in aromatics and flavor. Sugar has no flavor; it simply tastes sweet. What Iron Horse is doing at the very end - what dosage is about for us is a final “spicing” of the wine. This sets the style of the wine.” This approach is something that not many other houses are doing -- and it’s why we have come to call it Disruptive Dosage (Dosage 3.0).
Here’s how David explains it:
“An easy visual to explain our process is to think about a cold glass of ice tea. To perfect it with our flavor goals in mind, we crush more raspberries or Parisien lime juice into it. In essence, we’re building on the flavors that are already there to bend the wine in one direction or another.
For example, we sometimes like to add an older still wine to the dosage …. instead of sugar. Older wines have a high level of aldehydes , which are like sherry. Most of the time, when you taste sherry you would swear the wine was sweet, but actually there’s no residual sugar; you are tasting aldehydes. So, instead of adding sugar, I sometimes I reach into the Iron Horse library for older wines, in bottle, aging on the cork.
Experience and enthusiasm yielding disruptive dosage excellence
If I want to make it even more fun, I can add a bit of a red wine - not enough to make it pink but maybe copper, which could add ‘patina’ to the wine, if that’s what we’re looking for.
An all-chardonnay dosage can bring brightness and a perception of youth. The most important ingredient is creative thinking.
We are adding other things at the end that have nothing to do with sugar. In that regard, we’re doing something, to my knowlege, that really no one else is doing."
Here is a mini-version of a dosage tasting that you can try at home:
Compare our 2012 Brut X, 2012 Classic Vintage Brut and 2012 Russian Cuvee – three variations on the same base wine, each with a different dosage. We feel all three are of equal quality, making this a purely hedonistic experience. The point is to spotlight the influence of dosage.
NB For a straight up comparison, go with the same vintage across the board.
Brut X is the driest, so start there... The first two vintages were called Ultra Brut, a name I loved, until we received a very polite letter from the attorneys for the Laurent Perrier Champagne House asking us to cease and desist.
Some vintages like X is absolutely bone dry i.e. no residual sugar, which was a learning for me. I thought ultra or extra brut meant by definition no dosage, but we found that adding a few milliliters of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir gave the bubbly added refinement and polish.
Our Classic Vintage Brut is as the name implies our standard bearer in the sense that it sits at the same table with the finest bubblies made anywhere in the world, but showcasing the gorgeous fruit flavors that are unmistakably California, Sonoma County, Russian River, Green Valley and most specifically Iron Horse.
Russian Cuvée is the richest of our bubblies, but still technically a brut at 1.5% residual sugar. This has been (since 1985) and hopefully will continue to be (for all time) the cuvée favored by the White House. The tradition has been to serve it as the toasting wine at State Dinners, at the end of the meal, with dessert and prior to the evening’s entertainment.
This tasting of the three bubblies - X, Classic and Russian, should be purely hedonistic. We feel they are of equal quality. It’s fine to pick a favorite or love all three. The game, I mean "educational exercise," is intended to give you mental space to understand your own perspective on the dosage discourse dominating the industry.
As David will tell you, “Don’t just think about the dryness. 'That’s so yesterday'. We’ve considered the standard post-disgorgment practice and we’ve taken it to a whole new, exciting level.”
State Department Dinner at the Kennedy Center: Our Ocean, One Future Event Hosted by Secretary Kerry
We are extremely honored that Iron Horse Ocean Reserve Blanc de Blancs was the toasting wine at last night’s State Department International Ocean Conference - Our Ocean, One Future. The conference hosted by John Kerry brought foreign ministers, NGO leaders, and philanthropists to Washington D.C.
The occasion celebrated President Obama’s a new measure just enacted yesterday, designating the first marine national monument in the Atlantic Ocean. The act will protect fragile deep-sea ecosystems off the coast of New England as the “Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument.”
Secretary Kerry had much to toast with our bubbles in hand. He also acknowledged an earlier milestone - President Obama’s creation of the world’s largest marine protected area off the coast of Hawaii, creating a safe zone for tuna, sea turtles and thousands of other species in an underwater national park twice the size of Texas.
"Over the past several decades, the nation has made great strides in its stewardship of the ocean, but the ocean faces new threats from varied uses, climate change, and related impacts. Through exploration, we continue to make new discoveries and improve our understanding of ocean ecosystems. In these waters, the Atlantic Ocean meets the continental shelf in a region of great abundance and diversity as well as stark geological relief. The waters are home to many species of deep-sea corals, fish, whales and other marine mammals." - President Obama
With so much history making policy, there was clearly increased pressure to celebrate in kind. Chief of Protocol Peter Selfridge and State Department Chef Jason Larkin (see our past Chef Spotlight here) combined their finely honed diplomatic and culinary skills to create an impactful experience addressing significant global issues through food and wine. The renowned American chef selected to concept the menu was none other than Rick Moonen, who describes himself as a “godfather” of the sustainable seas movement. The four course meal was paired with all Iron Horse wines, featuring Ocean Reserve at the start.
We had the opportunity to speak to Chef Moonen about his starring role and he told us how thrilled he was to be selected as the lead for such an important event and how excited he was to continue making a difference after 40 years of championing the ocean, “My goal was to showcase our resources which need to be protected, creating a menu that reinforces the message … and represents the best of our seafood.”
When developing the progression of the culinary experience, his first instinct was to leverage the fruits of our vineyards, naturally gravitating to to our 2012 Oceans Reserve Blanc de Blancs for everything it strives to accomplish in the mission of saving our seas … and for it’s refreshing zest and creamy, rich finish.
2012 Ocean Reserve was paired with Chef Moonen’s Thai Green Papaya Salad with Toasted Peanuts to open up the dinner. From there, he selected our 2013 Rued Clone Chardonnay, to go with Alaskan Sable Fish and Chesapeake Oyster Chowder. For the entree,our 2013 Q Pinot Noir was served with True North Salmon with Olive Oil Crushed Potatoes and Garlic Caper Sauce. Chef Moonen determined the red wine’s firm and dry finish was the ideal way to round out the meal.
The menu also gave Iron Horse some additional, unexpected recognition, with a short history of the winery. This is the first time Iron Horse has been acknowledged in print on the menu like this, highlighting that our wines have been served by five consecutive US Presidential Administrations. The blurb went on to describe us as “one of the finest family-owned wine properties in the country and the top American-owned, sparkling wine producer in Sonoma County, ” touting our 260 acre reserve in the Green Valley AVA of the Russian River Valley and celebrating our limited edition Ocean Reserve which dedicates a percentage of sales to help establish marine protected areas and global sustainable fishing practices.
The acknowledgement was deeply appreciated by all of us in the Iron Horse family. We are so proud of the coveted role we get to play in such historic events. It is something we think about with each vintage and look forward forward to continuing this relationship, and representing our country with the fruits of our labors! So today we’re raising a glass to the Obama Administration, innovative Chef Moonen, Chef Jason Larkin and the ocean. Cheers!
Find a complete recap of the evening with streaming event video and an overview of the recent eco-responsible governing HERE.
El Niño was a big help to our long term water woes, but not the savior many had hoped (read our blog’s past predictions for the Great Wet Hope here). Winter storms brought normal snowpack in the Sierra, but once the flurries stopped and the seasons changed, melt-off from the high country proved swift and disappointing.
The Department of Water Resources projects that the mountains produced about three quarters of normal runoff during the months of heaviest snowmelt. This shorts the rivers and reservoirs that typically provide a third of California’s water, cementing a fifth year of historic drought for the Golden State (news coverage here). Now the Governor has used his executive powers to enact permanent measures, acknowledging that water conservation has to become a way of life.
“Permanent” turns out to be through January 17 when the state Water Resources Control Board can revise the regulations. For the next five months we are off mandatory water use management and onto voluntary cutbacks.
Instead of a statewide decree, cities and towns are now allowed to manage their individual conservation efforts. This measure acknowledges the obvious - that water, like every resource, is not naturally equally distributed statewide.
Back in 2015, the Governor mandated a 25% reduction in water use compared with a baseline of 2013, with the 411 water districts reporting monthly (full story from the Sacramento Bee here).
Post-El Nino, California officials feel we can afford a break in certain parts of the state, especially in the North. It has now been determined that we can ease off draconian, one size fits all measures. Local communities are empowered to decide their own conservation needs based on a three year stress test. Monthly reporting remains honoring a motto of “Trust, but verify.”
Map of Official Monitoring Stations in the Delta region
In the first month on this “honor system,” the state averaged 23% reduction. July’s numbers will be released soon, concrete evidence of continued commitment to voluntary water frugality.
As an active observer of California Water Policy, I can’t imagine anyone thought El Nino would provide a panacea for drought. Complete recovery requires several more years of “average” rainfall but it definitely was a boon here in Sonoma where soils were saturated and reservoirs refilled.
Long term, the Governor is right to plan for perpetual drought, which experts says is a very real possibility. Some anticipate a time when water may become more valuable than land, positing that land without water won’t be worth much. Shocking.
Theories like these are motivating significant action on a large scale. In an extremely controversial move, Southern California’s powerful Metropolitan Water District recently purchased 20,000 acres, scattered across five agricultural islands in the North’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.
Shown above, the area is called the “Delta” because it forms a triangle of roughly 1,000 miles of waterways from Antioch to Sacramento to Stockton and is the hub of California’s water delivery network. Metropolitan says they were interested in purchasing the islands so they could restore natural wetlands habitat for plants and wildlife. Such restoration projects are required of water districts to offset the effects of their reservoirs, dams and canals. Two of the islands are in the path of Gov. Jerry Brown's plan to build two tunnels underneath the Delta. And owning the islands also grants Metropolitan senior rights to pump water out of the Delta.
Critics say the purchase was an old fashioned water grab. It was challenged in court, but allowed to go through (coverage here and more here).
This story is not without a happy update: Stanford researchers have detected a potential new water source in the Central Valley. Perhaps as much as three times more groundwater than previous estimates.
Previous studies only looked at depths of up to 1,000ft (300m). This one went deeper - and investigations show there’s three times as much fresh water at 1,000–3,000ft (300–900m) below ground.
But the potential “windfall” comes with caveats. It is very deep thus prohibitively expensive to extract and could be salty. Drilling for it could lead to further land subsidence, already a major problem. And much of these hitherto unknown water sources happen to be close to oil and gas wells, which puts them at risk of being contaminated.
Shut-down desalinization plant in Marina, Cali image via NewsDeeply.com
The Central Valley is home to California’s most productive farm belt, but the region’s groundwater is so severely overdrafted that in some places that the land has been sinking two inches a month. Problems with subsidence started decades ago, but have been made worse by the current drought. With surface water so scarce, one study shows we are currently pumping water out of the ground at twice the rate that the aquifers can naturally recharge. At this rate, pulling more water out of the ground wouldn’t help.
The scientists are not advocating the use of this new-found source … at least not just yet. As the old saying goes, “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.”
It'll take a while to figure out how to tap those very deep aquifers … and how to replenish them. In the meantime, we need to approach this new source with caution. Premature efforts could pollute the precious water AND inadvertently poke the “sleeping bear” - a term my friend and fellow water policy wonk Phil Grosse uses to describe the network of fault lines underlying the state. But this is California, where imagination and ingenuity are two of our greatest resources in overcoming technical difficulties and ultimately sway public policy.
In a press release on this topic, the Stanford scientists were cautiously optimistic despite the proximity of the groundwater to a potentially hazardous oil and gas operation. But they noted that the contamination risks are great enough that we should be paying attention. We might need to use this water in a decade, so it's definitely worth protecting. Find further reading on this important finding here and here.
I believe science will move us forward in the long run and I remain hopeful that technology will yield a sustainable solution. But for now, I’m relying on good old fashioned conservation. My wish list includes more normal rainfall, ideally from Thanksgiving through February and preferably at night, like Camelot.
Last day of harvest 2016 for Sparkling at Iron Horse. Photo: Laurence Sterling
Audrey & Barry Sterling are full partners in everything they do. Iron Horse is their vision.
They first saw Iron Horse in a driving rainstorm in 1976 with the vineyard development only partially completed. There was no winery.
Image Above: Winery Then
Image Above: Winery Now
And the 19th century carpenter gothic house was dramatically listing to one side.
Image Above: Victorian Then
Image Above: Victorian Now
Nevertheless, after a taste of wines made from Iron Horse grapes, they knew their search had ended and a dream begun.
This is Barry with his first tractor
And Audrey, ever the gracious chatelaine
It is hard to remember how pioneering it was to put down roots in western Sonoma County in the mid-70s. Even the UC Davis Agricultural Extension advised against investing in an area prone to frost. But the Sterlings knew the quality of cool climate Chardonnay and Pinot Noir from living in France in the 1960s and Audrey was familiar with the area from childhood summers on the Russian River.
They heard about Iron Horse at a dinner party and while few had identified the region as ideal for wine growing, went on an immediate tour, and in Audrey’s words “That was it.” Here is how they remember the day in a brief video clip.
That was the moment that a vision took flight, marrying founders to the land and triggering the foundational labor which truly great wine demands - building a 54 acre foot reservoir for frost protection, rehabilitating the vineyards and restoring their new home. The first vintage of Estate Chardonnay was produced in 1978. 1979 marked the first vintage of Estate Pinot Noir and the official opening of the winery. The first Sparkling Wines were vintage 1980.
In 1983, the name on the application for federal recognition of Green Valley as an American Viticultural Area (AVA) was Audrey Sterling with her attorney of record, Barry H. Sterling. Here’s a second clip of them reflecting on the significance of Green Valley.
These were out of the box thinkers driven by a belief in their future as vintners and informed by their time in France. “We were among the first to do that (define our area precisely), doing any AVA was something very new for California. It was rather an exciting time. I think we forget about how unusual that was because of how ordinary it is today.” Barry explains further, “Everyone knows the exact detailed lines that are drawn in France, so we knew that was an important step forward.” In bringing this procedure to Green Valley, they were setting their roots down in an unshakable way that has become status quo throughout the state.
The pioneering spirit of Iron Horse continues to permeate every decision going forward. The family has gone on to develop several industry leading partnerships. The richness of their wines take on added meaning as so many of the bottlings are specially developed to commemorate major moments in family, national and world history.
Iron Horse has been served at the White House for 30 years, beginning with the historic Reagan-Gorbachev Summit Meetings ending the Cold War, and most recently at the White House LGTB reception June 9, 2016.
The winery produces a very special, limited production vintage Blanc de Blancs, called Ocean Reserve. This began with an equally special friendship which Audrey Sterling originally developed with National Geographic Chairman Emeritus Gil Grosvenor. Iron Horse contributes $4 bottle to National Geographic’s Ocean Initiative to help establish marine protected area and reduce over fishing.
As we celebrate their 40th vintage, we honor all the micro moments that led the Sterlings to this place. Iron Horse has elevated their sparklings and still wines to live at the intersection of history and politics and family lore. Something so good and so rare must be celebrated. Stay tuned for our next blog on our July 3rd summer soiree to mark the important milestone.